The causes of appearance of birthmarks are different, and vary according to the type of stain. Here are the main causes of birthmarks and their evolution:
The cutaneous hemangioma is related to a benign vascular anomaly, there are 3 different aspects:
- The most common is superficial hemangioma. Commonly known as "strawberry", it is a raised, red-raspberry stain, with an irregular appearance.
- The deep form appears as a small mass under a skin of normal or bluish color.
- The mixed form brings together these two different aspects.
Harmless but slowly progressing, cutaneous haemangioma of the infant evolves in two phases:
1 / A first phase of "evolution", between the 6th and the 10th month: the hemangioma, appeared in the form of pinkish spot, gains in volume. Complications, most often minor (bleeding, inflammation, etc.) can occur and require, in some cases, treatment.
2 / Then a phase of "slow regression" that will last up to 7 to 10 years. It eventually disappears, often leaving room for a small scar.
The angioma plan
Unlike the hemangioma, the planar angioma does not regress over time. Its surface increases in proportion to the growth of the child and thickens in adulthood.
Benign angiomatous lesion
When we find the benign angiomatous lesion from birth on the forehead that can extend to the eyelids, on the nose, the footprint of the angel, or on the nape of the neck. When it is located elsewhere than on the neck, it disappears most often before 3 years.
Congenital nevus is another cause of birthmark, it is a mole present from birth.
It is in the form of a dark birthmark, marooned, more or less dark. It can measure from a few millimeters to more than 20 cm.
The main risk is the progression to melanoma (skin cancer), which is all the more important as the nevus is large. The monitoring of this mole is therefore essential.
The "café au lait" stains
The "café au lait" stains are described as flat and not hairy (without hair). They are not dangerous. On the other hand, the presence of several spots of this type must make suspect certain genetic neurological affections.
When a white spot appears at birth or in the first days of life, it is called "achromic hamartoma". It is a congenital white spot, localized, without prejudice other than aesthetic. It is secondary to a localized deficit of pigment cells.
This birthmark does not disappear, but becomes less visible as the skin color changes during the first months of life. She does not tan in the sun.
Another cause of a birthmark: the Mongoloid spot which is a bluish spot measuring a few millimeters to a few centimeters, present on the lower back, buttocks, thighs or shoulders. This type of birthmark gradually fades and disappears completely between 7 and 13 years of age. As a result, no treatment is indicated. Although this birthmark is more common among Asian and American Indian children, it appears in 1 to 10% of Caucasian ('western') children.
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