Protect your skin and eyes from the sun: dermato tips to protect the skin

Interview of Pr Passeron, dermatologist at the University Hospital Center of the Archet in Nice.

What are the radiation at risk for the skin?

We define three types of UV that make up only 2 to 5% of the total solar spectrum, but which have the most effect on the skin and on the eyes: UVA, UVB and UVC.

UVA is the radiation that penetrates most deeply into the skin, the dermis and causes damage to DNA (the genetic material contained in particular in the nucleus of cells), mainly via free radicals.
Yet, we know their harmfulness only for a decade. They are responsible for the phenomena of photo-aging (including wrinkles), but also skin cancers. They are doubly dangerous because they pass through the windows, and it is impossible to be aware of their action.

UVB is the radiation responsible for sunburn, it is even as we realized their harmfulness. They penetrate less deeply and touch the superficial part of the skin (the epidermis), but are nevertheless responsible for direct damage to the DNA of the cells. They also participate in the phenomena of photo-aging and cutaneous cancers. UVB is blocked by windows.

UVCs are the most harmful, but they are fortunately blocked by the ozone layer. In areas where this layer is thinner, there has been an increase in skin cancer.

What are these risks?

The acute effects of radiation are sunburn. These may be of different intensities, ranging from a simple pink appearance of the skin to large bullous cupboards. The chronic effects of UV exposure are skin cancers, including melanomas, unfortunately well known. The risk of melanoma is increased by intense and intermittent sunburn, especially in children and adolescents.

Are there other harmful effects?

There are other skin cancers that are more or less serious and are more the result of chronic exposure. There are still signs of photo-aging, such as wrinkles or these small brown spots, commonly referred to as "age spots", but which are photo-aging patches. Finally, there are other signs such as comedones (small black dots on the skin), fragility of the skin, small vessels that become visible, etc.

What is your skin type?

Oily, dry, sensitive or normal skin: it is important to know your skin to provide the appropriate care. What is your skin type? Take the test!

Overall, do you think that the messages of prevention against the sun are well understood by the general public?

No. People have understood the importance of the application of creams, but they do it only when they spend a day at the beach or do not do it properly, they do not choose the right protection, they start sun at the most dangerous hours of exposure to UVB (between 11 am and 3 pm), they do not protect the eyes, etc.

What are the behaviors that should be integrated?

Especially for children, whose exposure to the sun before the age of 15 may give rise later, to the appearance of melanoma. The immaturity of their skin, even for those with more pronounced pigmentation, causes them to not properly repair the damage caused by UV on their DNA. The damage to the UV can go completely unnoticed.

Finally, it is important to remember that UVA is constant all day and at any time of the year, summer or winter. It is therefore necessary to protect oneself: the skin but also the eyes all year round.

17 Skin Info

Our skin is not just the outer skin of our body, it is a complex and versatile weave. For you, we have gathered the most important information to know about the skin.

17 Skin Info

The skin is a very important tissue of the human body. If it were spread on the ground, it would cover an area of 1.5 to 2 m² (in adults).

17 Skin Info

The skin represents about 15 to 20% of our body weight. For a person who weighs 75 kg, this amounts to a weight of almost 14 kg.

17 Skin Info

The skin has on average 6 million cells, 15 sebaceous glands and 100 sweat glands per cm².

17 Skin Info

The skin is responsible for our unique appearance and performs multiple functions . It protects us for example cold, heat or chemicals, ...

17 Skin Info

. she perceives contacts , pains and temperatures .

17 Skin Info

. and it ensures that the body does not lose too much liquid . At the same time, the skin allows a well-dosed liquid loss to cool off from the outside when necessary.

17 Skin Info

In total, the skin includes 3 layers in total: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis . Each layer has very different functions.

17 Skin Info

The upper layer, the epidermis, protects us mainly from heat, cold and chemicals . It is covered with very many bacteria that live on the surface of the epidermis.

17 Skin Info

The epidermis is particularly thick on the hands and feet where its diameter can reach up to 2 mm . The average thickness of the epidermis is 0.05 mm.

17 Skin Info

The cells of the epidermis multiply at such a speed that the complete epidermis is completely renewed in the space of only one month . The body loses each day between 10 and 15 grams of dead cells.

17 Skin Info

Below the epidermis is the dermis : it consists of a very dense network of collagen fibers that give the skin its elasticity and deformability, as well as its resistance to tearing .

17 Skin Info

In the dermis are blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, cells of the immune system, hair roots, multiple skin glands and pressure receptors (for the sense of touch).

17 Skin Info

When it is cold, the small blood vessels of the dermis "tighten", when it is hot they widen. This also has an impact on the color of the skin .

17 Skin Info

The layer below the dermis, the hypodermis, consists mainly of fat and connective tissue. The grease serves as a reservoir of energy and thermal insulator .

17 Skin Info

The hypodermis allows the mobility of the skin and connects it to the underlying structures.

17 Skin Info

On the hands and especially the feet, the fat of the hypodermis also serves as a " mattress " to protect the bones and tendons that it covers.

How to choose your sun protection?

The SPF index reported on sunscreens, is based on the redness induced (erythema) by the UVB. For example, for an index of 50, it takes 50 times more UV to get a sunburn. This index is however calculated with large doses of creams. In fact, studies show that people put 2 to 4 times more cream than what is used to calculate the protection index. We must remember that we must:

  • 1) apply significant amounts of creams and
  • 2) frequently renew applications if you want to be effectively protected.

Are there differences between the skin of the face and the skin around the eye?

Yes, the skin around the eye is a much finer skin. When skin cancer appears and the affected area is removed, doctors are also forced to remove skin around to define safety margins. However, in this area, it is always more difficult and tricky to perform this operation. Around the eye, the skin is more fragile and more reactive.

This is why we must protect this region by applying lotion or sunscreen, in addition to wearing sunglasses. Remember that the sun comes from the front, but also from the sides and can be reflected by the glasses of your glasses.

Good to know: 21 tips to have a beautiful skin

Do you want to share, share your experience or ask a question? Appointment in our FORUMS Tanning and Sun or Skin Care!

Read also :

> Self-tanning: the solution for tanning without risk?
> Sun and skin
> Prepare your skin well in the sun
> Take care of your skin after the sun
> All about skin diseases

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