The causes of dysphagia are of different types: neuromuscular, oesophageal, ENT, psychogenic.
1 - Neuromuscular causes
These can be multiple: stroke, head trauma, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, cerebral infections, myopathies, sequelae of radiotherapy, etc.
In these cases, dysphagia is rarely the only symptom and the condition is most often already known.
2 - ENT or esophageal causes
These causes of dysphagia are numerous, and of variable gravity. They can affect the ENT area (especially the pharynx) or the esophagus. This last is a "pipe" constituting the first part of the digestive tract, starting from the back throat to the stomach.
> The tumoral causes
A tumor can be the cause of obstructive dysphagia. She is high if she touches the ENT area, or low if she touches the esophagus. It evolves from simple transient discomfort to the total impossibility of swallowing. Cancer is not the only diagnosis, but it must be considered. Dysphagia is sometimes associated with weight loss. Smoking and alcohol consumption favor this type of malignant disease.
> Esophageal causes
Esophagitis is the most common cause. It is an inflammation of the esophagus, most commonly caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is a rise of a part of the acidic liquid contained in the stomach, which alters the esophageal wall.
Other causes may be considered: oesophageal stenosis, esophageal diverticulum, etc.
> ENT causes
Dysphagia can also reveal significant angina, sequelae of interventions (such as intubation or nasogastric tube), or other abnormalities around the throat.
3 - Psychogenic causes
They are rare. Dysphagia can result from conversion syndrome or some other form of psychosomatic disorder.