Anemia: The causes

During certain periods of life, one is more vulnerable to anemia, especially during pregnancy, where iron and vitamin B9 deficiency are common.
Among the causes of anemia, several diseases can be responsible.

Above all, hemorrhages can cause anemia: either the bleeding is externalized and therefore visible and diagnosed quickly: trauma, childbirth, surgery. Elsewhere, they can be difficult to diagnose: a stomach ulcer that bleeds a little or another lesion ...

In these cases, the haemorrhage must be stopped. Sometimes anemia is such that a transfusion of one or more red blood cells (ie red blood cells) is required.
This anemia is regenerative, that is to say that the bone marrow will make new red blood cells.

Hemolytic anemias are anemia where red blood cells are destroyed too quickly or because the membrane of the red blood cell is abnormal or too fragile, there may also be antibodies against red blood cells that destroy them or an enzyme deficiency: this is the case of thalassemias, sickle cell diseases (two hereditary diseases).

Some poisoning by chemical agents such as benzene, alcohol can also cause anemia. This is also the case with certain infectious diseases such as malaria, viral diseases, certain cancers, systemic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory diseases can lead to embrittlement and the destruction of red blood cells.

Other anemias are due to the decrease in the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow, they are aregenerative.

Some deficiencies cause anemia by preventing the formation of hemoglobin, red blood cells: malnutrition whose origin may be a digestive pathology that leads to poor absorption of vitamins and minerals; the origin can also be food with too little intake of vitamins or minerals in relation to consumption: iron deficiency during pregnancy for example, deficiencies in folic acid (vitamin B9), vitamin B12 deficiencies in people with advanced chronic gastritis or gastrectomy.

Kidney failure also causes anemia. Other pathologies such as cancers that invade the bone marrow (leukemia) give anemia. But also some treatments against cancer, such as chemotherapy.

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